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What Are The Four Methods To Purify Water

Drinking water is essential for all human beings as water participates in the body's all functions. But it is only possible when you drink pure and healthy water all the time you wish to drink water. These days all almost all the source of water is heavily contaminated, and it is because of the industrialization and various human activity.

Drinking of contaminated water leads to various kinds of health issues and waterborne diseases. Thus it is always advisable to treat your drinking water before you consume it. Being natural solvent water can dissolve almost everything in it due to this feature water has become home of the various kinds of disease-causing agents, and consumption of this form of water may lead to fatal health conditions.

Four Methods Of Water Purification

With the water purification system's help, water can be adequately treated, and all kinds of contamination can be eliminated easily. There are various water purification methods, but here we have listed the top four methods to purify water and these methods are 

  • Coagulation & Flocculation
  • Disinfection
  • Distillation 
  • Filtration

1. Coagulation & Flocculation

It is the first step of the water purification process in which some chemicals are added to the water for the removal of the suspended particle from the water. These added particles can be organic and inorganic. The added inorganic compound can neutralize the negatively charged particle present in water, and after neutralization, these particles start forming metal hydroxide of aluminum ions and iron.

These metal ions combine and form large compounds by the induced flocculation process. After forming abundant compounds, it starts absorbing suspended particles present in water and induced removal of those suspended particles by a process called filtration and sedimentation.

2. Disinfection

The cleaning process, which is used to destroy microbes present in water, is called as disinfection. This can be achieved by removing or by adding disinfectant chemicals. It can be made with the help of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone, and ultra-violate (UV) rays.  Chlorine and its compounds (chlorine dioxide and chloramine) are potent oxidants that effectively kill the microbes present in the water.

The ozone used in the disinfection process is also a powder oxidant. Ozone is unstable molecules that produce natation oxygen, and oxygen is the powerful oxidizing agent. UV rays have high penetration power, which can destroy all kinds of microbial contamination present in water.

3. Distillation

The distillation process is defined as the separation of something from the liquid mixture through selective boiling and condensation. With the distillation process, both particle and complete separation of the unwanted material from the water molecules can be done. In the distillation, process water is subjected to heat. Thus various Scientist believes that the distillation process is one of the best process among all the water purification process.

The boiling point of the water is less as compared to the various water pollutants and disease-causing agents. Thus water gets vaporized, leaving the impurities after the vaporization water is directed to the condenser to cool. After the cooling vapor converted into water. The water obtained in the Distillation process are entirely free from all kind of water contamination.

4. Filtration

It is a mechanical process used to separate solids from the fluids by adding a medium that only allows the fluids to pass through it. The fluids which pass through are called the filtrate. It is one of the active water purification processes among all the processes. A filtration process can be done by both physical and chemical means. This process ensures that your drinking water is entirely free from contamination.

Few Other Methods For Water Purification

#1. Distillation

Distillation is a water purification technology that uses heat to purify water in the form of vapors. This method is effective as water has a lower boiling point than other suspended contaminants and disease-causing agents inside water. Water is connected to a heat source until it reaches its boiling point and left until it vaporizes completely and is directed into a condenser to cool. After cooling, water vapor turns into water that is clean and safe for drinking. The other substances present in the water are left alone in the container because of their higher boiling point.

The distillation method effectively rejects bacteria, germs, excess salts, and other heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and arsenic. Distillation is an ideal technique for people who have access to raw and surface water. This method has both pros and cons as it has a slow process of water purification and needs a heat source for the purification to work. However, some other sources of energy are also developed, as distillation is always a costly method of purifying water. It is only effective and least costly when purifying a small amount of water.

#2. Chlorination

Chlorine is an effective chemical that has been used in water purification for many years to make it ready for consumption. Chlorination is an effective water purification technique that kills germs, parasites, and other disease-causing microbes found in groundwater. Water can be effectively purified by using chlorine tablets or liquid chlorine. As a non-machinery water purification method, chlorine is cheap and effective in all other methods.

However, precautionary measures should be taken when using chlorine to treat the bulk amount of drinking water. People suffering from thyroid problems should talk to a medical practitioner before consuming chlorinated water. When using chlorine, it is suggested to apply them in boiled water, as they dissolve properly in water above 21 degree Celsius or more. Chlorine tablets will effectively kill the entire suspended bacteria and make your water unsafe.

If you are looking for the best and cost-effective ways of treating your water, chlorine is your best chemical to use in place of water purification methods and has become the most used water purification method. Apart from chlorination, reverse osmosis is the best option, whereas filtering is good for basic water filtration after sediment and chlorine purifications. Reverse osmosis and UV technology cover a number of houses where water needs to be treated before drinking.

#3. Boiling

Boiling water is the cheap and easy method of water purification that has been used since ancient times. Water sources or municipal distribution of water may be unsafe for drinking as parasites and germs are the things that you can't see with your bare eyes, but their effects can make you worried.

In the boiling method, clean water should be brought to boil and left at least 2-3 minutes at the same flame. It is recommended to boil water slightly for a longer duration in higher altitude areas as compared to the lower altitudes. Boiled water should be covered properly after boiling and left to cool completely. For water drawn from wells, leave for a few minutes to settle sediments before you filter out or boil for drinking.

Which Water Purification System Is Best To Use In The Home?

A water purifier system is the best way to get rid of both the large and microscopic particles that can pollute water on a larger scale. A balanced water purification system can be highly effective when a combination of a pre-filter, secondary filter, and post-filter is used together. A pre-filter is used to get rid of the larger particles of sediment and improve the taste of water by getting rid of the smell of chlorine. An activated carbon filter stops impurities present in the water before it passes onto the next filter.

Usually, a reverse osmosis filter is used as a secondary water filter that pushes water through a semipermeable membrane and catches as small as 0.0001 microns of particles like bacteria and viruses. During the post-filter stage, the final destruction of impurities is given, usually with UV light or a sub-micron filter that catches as small as 0.035-micron particles. So, it is said that a water purifier is the ultimate solution for all kinds of water impurities, whether it is microbial or chemical.

About The Author

Abhishek Kumar (Biotechnology)